Okuani yɛ obi a ɔde ne ho hyɛ asaase dwuma, ɔyɛ mfudeɛ ne nnɔbaeɛ.[1] Wɔde saa din na ma nnipa a wɔdua nnɔbaeɛ,yɛn nkokɔ,orchards,vineyards ne mmoa afoforɔ. Asaase bɛtumi ayɛ Okuani deɛ anaasɛ ɔbɛtumi ayɛ adwuma ama asaase bi wura. Wɔ aman bi a mpuntuo wɔ mu no, okuani yɛ obi a asaase yɛ ne dea, ɛna wɔn a wɔfa wɔn adwuma mu no yɛ adwumayɛfoɔ. Saa ara nso na,wɔ nkyerɛkyerɛmu mu no, okuani yɛ obi a ɔma mfudeɛ asaase so aduane nyini anaa ɔyɛn mmoa bi te sɛ nsuomnam. Akuafoɔ bɛyɛ ɔpepem fa na ɛnyɛ adwuma kɛseɛ,a pii no ara wɔ aman a atu mpɔn a wɔboa nnipa ɔpepem wɔ sikafam.[2] [3] Ewiase nyinaa mmaa bɛboro ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduanan na yafa wɔn ma wɔyɛ adwuma wɔ afuom.[4]

Abakɔsɛm Sesa

Kuadwuma firi tete sɛdeɛ Neolithic a ɛwɔ esu wɔ saa berɛ no teɛ no. Wɔ Bronze Afe pɛn so no na Sumerianfoɔ wɔ obi a ɔnim asaase dwuma yɛ wɔ mpem num de kɔpem nan na wɔde wɔn ho to nsuo a wɔde gu nnɔbaeɛ no so. Sɛ wɔretwa nnɔbaeɛ wɔ ɛpɛ berɛ mu a nnipa mmiɛnsa ka wɔn ho bom yɛ ekuo baako.[5] Tete akuafoɔ a ɛwɔ Egypt yɛɛ kua de wɔn ho too so na wɔnya wɔn nsuo firi Nile.[6]

Kwan a wɔfa so yɛn mmoa ne titire kuayɔ, wɔ hɔ bɛyɛ sɛ mfeɛ mpem nie. Wɔyɛn kraman wɔ East Asia bɛyɛ mfeɛ mpem du num nie. Wɔyɛn mpɔnkye ne nnwan wɔ 8000 BCE wɔ Asia. Prako nso wɔ 7000 BCE wɔ Middle East ne China. Afurumu nso bɛn 4000 BCE.[7]

Kuadwuma kuo Kuafoɔ yɛ wɔn a wɔfiri nkurase, mantam anaa wiase nyinaa akuafoɔ kuo anaa wɔn a wɔyɛ nsaase dwuma kuo na wɔbɛtumi de amanyɔsɛm awura mu ahoɔden so. Grange anamɔntuo a ɛwɔ United States dii dwuma bi a ɔmaa akuafoɔ nhyehyɛeɛ baa mu, ne titire nea ɛtoa keteke kwan ne wɔn a wɔn ani gye kuadwuma ho wɔ mfeɛ ahanu no mu. FNSEA a ɛwɔ France de wɔn ho gye amanyɔsɛm mu paa, ne titire sɛ ɛfa nnuane ho a. Wɔn a wɔde nnuane ba, ketewa ne akɛseɛ nyinaa no, International Federation of Agricultural Producers da wɔn adi wɔ wiase afanaa nyinaa, a ɛgyina hɔ ma akuafoɔ bɛboro ɔpepem ahansia wɔ akuafoɔ kuo bɛyɛ aha aduonu wɔ aman aduoson nkron mu.

Mfasoɔ a wɔnya Sesa

Wɔbɛtumi atɔn nnuane no bi ama dwam, akuafoɔ dwam, anaa afiri afuom hɔ. Wɔ amammuo bia wɔn sikasɛm wɔ soro no, akuafoɔ no abusuafoɔ no ankasa tumi di wɔn ara nnɔbaeɛ no anaasɛ mpɔtam no.

Akwanhyia a ɛwɔ kuadwuma mu Sesa

Yɛwɔ akwanhyia pii wɔ asase dwuma mu; kuadwuma yɛ dwumakuo bi a ɛyɛ hu paa. [8]Mmoa bi te sɛ nyanyankyerɛ, kakapɛ, nwowa, wasps ne hornet tumi ka akuafoɔ. Akuafoɔ sane de afidie a ɛbɛtumi apira anaa akum yɛ adwuma. Akuafoɔ bɛtumi anya honam yea afiri adwuma ntoatoasoɔ so.[9]

N'abɔseɛ Sesa

Asɛmfua "okuani" gyina hɔ ma obi a ɔgye toɔ firi obi a ɔhan dan a ɔyɛ adwuma wɔ asaase bi so ma efiewura. [10]Asɛmfua no sesa bɛyɛɛ obi a ɔyɛ adwuma wɔ asaase bi so. Edin a na wɔde ma kuani yɛ "churl ne husbandman(okuani)".[11]

Beaeɛ a menyaa mmoa firiiɛ Sesa

  1. Dyer 2007, p. 1: "The word 'farmer' was originally used to describe a tenant paying a leasehold rent (a farm), often for holding a lord's manorial demesne. The use of the word was eventually extended to mean any tenant or owner of a large holding, though when Gregory King estimated that there were 150,000 farmers in the late seventeenth century he evidently defined them by their tenures, as freeholders were counted separately
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20130505224355/http://www.ifad.org/operations/food/farmer.htm
  3. http://www.fao.org/3/i2953e/i2953e.pdf
  4. http://www.fao.org/state-of-food-agriculture/2017/en/
  5. By the sweat of thy brow: Work in the Western world, Melvin Kranzberg, Joseph Gies, Putnam, 1975
  6. Nicholson (2000) p. 514
  7. http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
  8. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/aginjury/
  9. doi:10.1080/1059924x.2018.1458671. ISSN 1059-924X. PMID 30047854. S2CID 51719997
  10. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2022-07-08. Retrieved 2022-07-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. https://www.etymonline.com/word/farmer