Asɛmdibia

Asɛnnibea yɛ nnipa bi anaa dwumakuo, a ɛyɛ aban nnwumakuo, a ɛwɔ tumi sɛ ɔbɛfa mmara kwan so adi nnipa mmienu asɛm a ɛfa ntawantawa ho na wafa asɛntenenee a ɛnam mmara so de adi bɔne a obi yɛ tia ne nua, bɔne a obi yɛ tia aban ne adwuma mu nsɛm.[1]Wɔ (common Law ne civil Law Legal system) mu no, kɔɔto na ɔsiesie ntawantawa, na obiara te aseɛ sɛ nnipa biara wɔ ho kwan sɛ ɔde n'asɛm ba kɔɔto. Nea yɛde ntansa abɔ no sɛ wayɛ bɔne bi no asɛdeɛ ne sɛ ɔde anoyie bɛba wɔ asɛm a yɛde ato no so no wɔ kɔɔto. Kɔɔto nkorabata a ɛkyerɛ mmara san de di dwuma yɛ "Judiciary" Baabi a kɔɔto tena no wɔfrɛ no"bebue". Dan a wɔdi kɔɔto nsɛm no wɔfrɛ no kɔɔto dan na Ɛdan no nso yɛ kɔɔto fie; kɔɔto adan no firi nea ɛnyɛ kyenkyeren dekɔ adan nketewa wɔ nkurase ma no kɔ akɛseɛ wɔn nkuro akɛseɛ. Mmara wɔde ama kɔɔto di dwuma yɛ tumi (firi Latin iūrisdictiō, from iūris, "of the law," + dīcō, "to declare," + -tiō, noun-forming suffix), kɔɔto no tumi a ɔde bɛkyerɛ nsɛmmisa ne adesrɛ a ɔde ka ho.William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England kyerɛ mu sɛ, kɔɔto wɔ kuo mmiɛnsa: "actor anaa plaintiff" nea ɔde n'asɛm akɔda kɔɔto; "reus anaasɛ defendant" nea ɔreyi ne ho ano wɔ kɔɔto ɛna "Judex anaa Judicial power", nea ɔhwehwɛ asɛm no mu nokware, ɔkyerɛ mmara a ɛfa asɛm no ho na sɛ wohunu sɛ mfomsoɔ aba a mpaninfoɔ de no fa mmara kwan so. Ɛyɛ sɛ Superior kɔɔto bɛnya mmaranimfoɔ, kasamafoɔ, aboafoɔ,[2] ɛwɔm sɛ Mpempii no kɔɔto wɔ mmaranimfoɔ foforɔ, kɔto nsaman kraataa somafoɔ, nkaeɛbɔfoɔ ne jury. Kɔɔto yɛ mpanimfoɔ, Mpempii atɛmmuafoɔ baako anaa mmienu. Ɔtɛmmuafoɔ na anaa n'apamfo no nso wɔfrɛ wɔn "bench"( a ɛne kasamafoɔ ne mmaranimfoɔ da nso a wɔfrɛ wɔn "bar").[3] Wɔ United States no, sɛ kɔɔto de mmara bɛdi dwuma a ɔgyina ɔno ara tumi so wɔ nnipa mmienu a wɔn asɛm wɔ kɔɔto no asɛm so de bu wɔn atɛn.

N'abɔseɛSesa

Kɔɔto firi French cour, baabi a akata, a ɛfiri Latin gotten, "the accusative case of cohors" a ɛsan kyerɛ baabi a akata anaa nnipa a ɛwɔ hɔ. Borɔfo din kɔɔto firi Latin din hortus a ɛfiri Ancient Greek χόρτος (khórtos) a ɛkyerɛ afuom a wɔyɛ no mfikyire, a bɛyɛ horticulture ne orchards), a ne nyinaa kyerɛ baabi a yɛakata so.[4] Judicial Assembly nkyerɛaseɛ hyɛɛ aseɛ wɔ 12th century, na wɔde di dwuma ntɛm de kyerɛ "soveringn and his entourage", a na ɛkyerɛ sɛ wɔde nsɛm wɔ saa beaeɛ a wɔakata so no. Adeyɛ kɔɔto kyerɛ sɛ wɔbɛdi nkunim, a ɛfiri baabi baako ɛnam sɛ nnipa nante kɔ "sovereign court" ma ɔdi nkunim wɔ n'asɛm mu.[3][5]

Tumi[6]Sesa

Tumi ne sɛ wɔbɛnya mmara kwan so atu anamɔn na wabu atɛn wɔ nnipa ne nnoɔma nsɛm mu wɔ baabi. [6]Mmara biara asɛmmisa titire paa ne sɛ " sɛ kɔɔto bi wɔ tumi a ɔde bɛdi asɛm bi". Nnoɔma mmiɛnsa a ɛdi hene wɔ tumi mu ne wo ankasa mmara wɔ nnipa baako anaa biribi so(red), tumi wɔ asɛm pɔtee bi so(subject-matter juridiction) ne territorial juridiction.[7] Tumi a wɔdi no wɔ nnipa so yɛ tumi mua wɔ nnipa so a ɛmfa ho ne baabi a ɔfiri, tumi a ɛfa asɛm pɔtee bi ho no yɛ tumi a wɔwɔ wɔ asɛm no so ma territorial juridiction yɛ tumi a ɔwɔ wɔ nnipa so wɔ kwan bi so. Tumi foforɔ no bi ne "general jurisdiction, exclusive jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, ne (in the United States federal courts) diversity jurisdiction".[7]

Trials and appellate courts.Sesa

Trial kɔɔto yɛ kɔɔto a ɛkura atɛmmuo mu. Ɛtɔda a wɔfrɛ no "courts of First instance", Trial kɔɔto tumi ankasa no sesa. Trial kɔɔto bɛtumi ne apamfoɔ adi asɛm sɛ obi a wahunu nokware (yɛfrɛ wɔn jury Trials) anaa Trials a ɔtɛmmuafoɔ no di dwuma sɛ obi a wahunu asɛm bi nokware ne mmara((wɔfrɛ no bench Trials wɔ mmara bi mu). Wontaa nhunu apamfoɔ pii wɔ kɔɔto wɔ Anglo-American mmara mu. Appellate courts yɛ kɔɔto a ɛte kɔɔto nketewa ne Trial kɔɔto adesrɛ. Kɔɔto bi te sɛ Crown Court a ɛwɔ England ne Wales wɔ Trial ne appellate tumi.

Civil Law courts and common Law courtsSesa

Mmara mmienu a ɛdi ntontom a ɛnnɛ mmerɛ yi ne "civil Law courts ne common Law courts". Saa mmara akɛseɛ yi sɛ, ɛne sɛ ne mmienu firi amanɔne amammerɛ mu, ɛwɔm sɛ nsonsonoeɛ da wɔn ntam. "Civil Law" no fa Romanfoɔ mmara ho,ne titire mmara a wɔfrɛ no "Corpus iuris civilis".[8] Wɔsane nyaa nsɛm a ɛfa civil Law yi ho wɔ 11th century rekɔ m'awieɛ no na ɛbɛyɛɛ mmɔase maa University Legal Education a ɛhyɛɛ aseɛ firii Bologna, Italy na ɛno akyire no wɔkyerɛɛ wɔ Continental European Universities.[8] Civil Law wɔ French ne German mmara mu. English Royal Judges M ma ɔhene no asoeɛ na ɛsii Common Law courts berɛ a Nkraman wuraa Britain wɔ 1066.[9] Royal Judges na ɛtee a mmara kuo a wɔde nkuraseɛ mmara kaa ho a wɔmaa wɔn hunuu wɔ kwan a wɔtu ne nsrahwɛ kɔhwɛ tumi a ɛwɔ nkurase.[9] Mmara a na ɛnyɛ na no na wɔfrɛ no "common Law". Wɔde saa mmara no di dwuma wɔ Engresi ne America mmara mu. Wɔ civil Law tumi mu no, kɔɔto no di dwuma wɔ kɔnkɔnymu. Wɔ common Law mu no, kɔɔto pii no ara di "adversarial system " no akyi. Kwan a wɔfa so yɛ mmara no fa mmara a kɔɔto de yɛ ne dwuma: sɛ obi ne ne yɔnko nnipa nya asɛm a (civil procedure) yɛde siesie ankorankorɛ nsɛm ma "Criminal Procedure" yɛde twe obi a obu mmara so. Wɔ mfeɛ a atwam no na wɔsi amanɔne kɔɔto de siesie nsɛm a ɔman no kɔɔto tumi ntumi nni. Nhwɛsoɔ, International Criminal kɔɔto a ɛwɔ Hague, wɔ Kingdom of the Nethery anaasɛ courts of permanent Lol Adalat(Public utility Services), a ɛwɔ India.

Court television showsSesa

Tɛlɛvihyin yi kɔɔto kyerɛ, a ɛnka Judicial system no ho na wɔyɛ ankorankorɛ, da nnoɔma a ɛkɔ so wɔ kɔɔto adi; ne saa nti nnoɔma a wɔda no adi wɔ kɔɔto kyerɛ afoforɔ no nnipa pii ka sɛ ɛnyɛ mmara a ɛwɔ kɔɔto ankasa no no ne maɔmara no nso su.[10] Kɔɔto no bi ne

  • Caso Cerrado
  • Judge Judy
  • Paternity Court
  • The People's Court
  • Judge Mathis
  • Judge Alex
  • Judge Joe Brown
  • Eye for an Eye
  • Judge Rinder
  • Ace Attorney
  • Adaalat

International courtSesa

  • International judicial institution
  • International Court of Justice
  • International Criminal Court
  • International Court of Arbitration

Kɔɔto ahodoɔ ne nnwumakuoSesa

  • Administrative court
  • Amammra Kɔɔto
  • Commercial Court (disambiguation)
  • Court of Faculties
  • Court of record
  • Court-martial
  • Ecclesiastical court
  • Equity court
  • Extraordinary court
  • Abusua kɔɔto
  • Lower court
  • Ordinary court
  • Specialized court

Beaɛ a menyaa mmoa firiiɛSesa

  1. https://archive.org/details/oxfordcompaniont0000walk
  2. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/blackstone_bk3ch3.asp
  3. 3.0 3.1 See generally 28 U.S.C. § 1: "The Supreme Court of the United States shall consist of a Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices [ . . . ]" (italics added); 28 U.S.C. § 43(b): "Each court of appeals shall consist of the circuit judges of the circuit in regular active service." (italics added); 28 U.S.C. § 132(b) (in part): "Each district court shall consist of the district judge or judges for the district in regular active service." (italics added); 28 U.S.C. § 151 (in part): "In each judicial district, the bankruptcy judges in regular active service shall constitute a unit of the district court to be known as the bankruptcy court for that district [ . . . ]" (italics added).
  4. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=court
  5. http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/cour
  6. 6.0 6.1 http://civilprocedure.uslegal.com/jurisdiction/
  7. 7.0 7.1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_Information_Institute
  8. 8.0 8.1 https://books.google.com/books?id=9tpJlKdqVTsC
  9. 9.0 9.1 Burnham, William (2006). Introduction to the Law and Legal System of the United States (4th ed.). St. Paul (Minn.): Thomson-West. ISBN 9780314158987
  10. https://books.google.com/books?id=x7fOVPmlS4MC&q=judge+judy+courtroom&pg=PA159