Vaccine

Vaccine yɛ aduro bi a yareɛ mmoawa a won ahuoden ayɛ mere anaa sɛ won awu wo mu. Sɛ saa aduro yi a kɔ nnipa mu a, ekayan nnipa dua ne mu ahuoden mmoa ma wo sɔre tia yareɛ mmoawa biara daakye biara no ɛbeba nnipa dua no mu. Wotumi de aduro no so anum anaa sɛ wo de fa panie mu wɔ nnipa no. Saa kwan yi boa ma wotumi si yareɛ bebree ano.[1] Yareɛ no bi ne small pox, polio, ntobro (measles) ɛne tetanus. Aduro a ahuoden wo mu na aboa ama yareɛ bi abrɛ se ne influenza aduro,[2] HPV aduro and chicken pox aduro.[3][4]

Aduro ahuoden yɛ.Edit

Vaccines yɛ ma nnipadua no na n’ahuoden tumi ko tia nsaa yareɛ bebree.[5][6][7][8] Na mmom, wo kwan bi so no, won ahuoden no tumi brɛ ase. Vaccines ahuoden gyina ɛneɛma a edidi so yi so:[9]

  • Yareɛ tebea (vaccines tumi ko tia yareɛ bi sen yareɛ foforo.
  • Yareɛ mmoawa no suban (vaccines ko tia mmoawa potee bi. Sɛ mmoawa no suban dane a, vaccine no ahuoden tumi ba fam) [10]
  • Sɛ wo redi nhyehyɛe a ɛfa vaccine ne nom anaa ne wo ho.
  • Onipa biara da nso wo kwan a vaccine no yɛ n’adwuma. Vaccine no tumi yɛ adwuma yie wɔ nnipa bi mu sen afoforo.
  • Nipa nfie a w’adi, ne nnipa su bi tumi kyerɛ kwan a vaccine no ahuoden bɛyɛ.

Sɛ nnipa a w’asɔ no vaccine yi san ya yareɛ a, saa yareɛ no ahuoden ba fam sen nea yen sɔɔ no vaccine no bi. Nea edidi so yi yɛ nneɛma a ɛsɛ sɛ yɛ hyɛ no nso sɛ yɛ pɛ sɛ vaccine a yɛde sɔ nnipa bɛ kɔ yiye.[11][12]

  1. Yɛn nyɛ ahwɛ yiye sɛ vaccine a yɛ de ɛso nnipa no nfa ɔhaw foforo bi mma daakye bi.
  2. Yɛn nkɔso nhwehwɛ yareɛ foforo bi a ebetumi ada ne ho adi.
  3. Yɛn nkɔso nso nnipa ano wo yareɛ no ho mpo sɛ yareɛ no yera fi saa nnipa kuo no mu.

Ɛnam vaccine so nti, yareɛ a yɛfrɛ no smallpox yetumi tu n’ase. Saa yareɛ smallpox yi yɛ owuo ne nsae yareɛ a ɛka nnipa. Yareɛ bi te sɛ rubella, polio, ntobro, mumps, chickenpox ne typhoid ayɛ nna sene nfie beyɛ oha a atwa mu yi esane sɛ wo de vaccine sɔɔ nnipa bebree ano.[13]

Sɛ yɛde yareɛ bi ho vaccine so nnipa bebree ano a, ɛbedu mmerɛ bi no, ɛbɛyɛ den sɛ saa yareɛ no bɛsan aba saa nnipa kuo no mu. Vaccines nso tumi boa ma nnipadua no ko tia mmoawa a ɛsore tia nnuro bi a ɛsan sɛ wone saa nnuro no anya nkitahodie bebree wo mmre bi a atwa mu no nti. Bio nso, vaccine aboa ama yareɛ bi a na penicillin ahuoden ayɛ mmerɛ wo so no wo ko tia.[14] Mpo sɛ yɛ hwɛ ntobro yareɛ a, aduro a yɛ de sɔ anoo no abɔ nnipa bebree ho ban afi owuo mu afe biara mu.[15]

Nsunsuanso bɔneEdit

Aduro a yɛde sɔ nnipa wo mmerɛ a ɔyɛ abofra no mpen pii no ɛyɛ a nsunsuanso bɔne biara nni akyiri. Mpo sɛ biribi wo ho saa, ɛyɛ na ano nyɛ den.[16][17] Nea ɛtaa esi no bi ne ahuohyeɛ, yaw wo faako a yɛde panie no wɔɔ yɛ, ɛne honam yaw.[18] Yɛ wo nnipa bi a won nnipadua no ne ahuoden duro a ɛwɔ vaccine no mu nhyia. Nanso nsunsuanso a ano yɛ den no ntaa nsi.[16][19]

Aduro anaa vaccine no ahodoɔEdit

Aduro yɛde so yareɛ ano anaa vaccine yi gu ahohoro. Ebi yɛ yareɛ mmoawa a won awu anaa sɛ wontumi nkayan won ho. Ebi so yɛ akyi ade a ɛho te krogyeen.[20][21]

Nea ɛmu mmoawa awuEdit

Aduro a yɛde sɔ yareɛ ano bi wo hɔ a, wode yareɛ mmoawa a won awu esan sɛ wode aduro anaa ohyew aka won na ayɛ.

Nea ɛmu mmoawa ayɛ mmerɛEdit

Aduro a yɛde sɔ yareɛ ano bi wo hɔ a, wode yareɛ mmoawa a wo te ase na mmom wontumi nkanyan won ho na ayɛ. Saa aduro yi tumi kanyan nnipadua no ahobanbo nanso won a won nnipadua no ayɛ mmere deɛ, ɛnnyɛ mma won.

Aduro bɔneEdit

Vaccines no bi nso wo ho a, wonfa, yareɛ mmoawa a won ano ayɛ mmerɛ na ɛyɛ, na ɛmom, wode adu bɔne a ɛtumi de yareɛ ba na ɛyɛ.[22]

Nea won apone mmoawa no ho bi de ayɛEdit

Wotumi pone mmoawa ho bi de kanyan nnipadua no ahobanbo fuo. Wofrɛ no subunit vaccine

Nea mmoawa biara nni muEdit

Wo nam abɛɛfo kwan so de vaccines afoforo a wonfa mmoawa na ɛyɛ. Wode won nyansa ne won nsa na ɛyɛ saa vaccine no.

ValenceEdit

Woyɛ vaccine no bi wɔ kwan bi so a, ɛmma no ko tia yareɛ mmoawa baako pɛ.[23] Vaccines no nso bi wo hɔ a ahuoden a ɛwɔ mu nti, etumi ko tia yareɛ mmoawa bebree a wɔbɔ abusua baako.[24]

HeterotypicEdit

Vaccines no bi wo hɔ a wode mmoawa bi a wonya fi mmoa mu na ɛyɛ. Saa mmoawa yi nfa yareɛ biara mma nnipadua no mu anaase nsunsuansoɔ bɔne bi

Yareɛ ho banboEdit

Nnipadua no ahobanbofuo a wɔ ko tia yareɛ no hu vaccine sɛ ahohodeɛ a aba nnipadua no mu. Ne saa nti no, wosei no na afei nso wo hyɛ no nso. Saa yareɛ mmoawa a wo de yaa saa vaccine no bi san ba nnipadua no mu a, ahobanbofuo no hu no a, wosi no kwan sɛ nea ɛmma wɔn asi ntrɛ wo nnipadua no mu.

Nneɛma wo de hyɛ aduro no a ɛmma no nseɛEdit

Mmoawa bi wo vaccine mu a ɛboa ma wotumi kayan won ho ma wotumi bɔ nnipa ho ban. Wo san nso de aduro bi hyɛ vaccine no mu se nea ɛmma no nsei ntɛm.

Mmerɛ a ne kwan a wofa so de fa aduro no kɔ nnipadua muEdit

Sɛ nea yɛ bɛ nya banbo a edi mu nti, ɛyɛ sɛ yɛ de vaccine no so mmofra ntɛm pa ara na won ntwen kosi sɛ wobɛ nyin. Mmerɛ ne mmerɛ rekɔ no, ɛho bɛ hia sɛ wo bɛ san ama no aduro a ɛbɛhyɛ vaccine no mu kina. Vaccines bebree wo ho a w’ahyehyɛ no wɔ kwan bi so a, mmere ne mmere mu no, wode ma nnipa anaa sɛ onipa no di nfie bi a ansaa na wo betumi ama no saa vaccine no. Nfatohoo ne ntobro, tetanus, influenza ne pneumonia vaccines

NkrataasɛmEdit

Akwansideɛ titiriw a ɛwɔ vaccine yɛ mu no ne nkrataasɛm. Wiase apomuden dwuma keseɛ nhwehwɛ mu kyerɛ sɛ akwansideɛ no bi ne sika sɛm ne nnipa a wo wɔ adwuma no ho sua hunu.

Kwan a wofa so de aduro no ma nnipaEdit

Mpuntuo aba wo kwan ne nhyehyeɛ a wode vaccine fa so ma nnipa. Mpuntuo a ɛda nso ne nea yetumi de so nnipa anum. Mfatoho ne polio vaccine a sɛ onipa a onni ntete yɛ mpo tumi de ma. Wo gu su de mmoa ɛyɛ nhwehwɛ mu fa vaccine a wonfa ngu panie mu nwo. Wo nam abɛɛfo nimdeɛ kwan so ɛyɛ adeɛ bi a nsoe a aduro wo ano a ani ntumi nhu na wotumi de tare nipa honam ho.

Nea asisi wɔ aduro no yɛ muEdit

Mpuntuo bebree na aba wo vaccine yɛ mu[25][26]

  • Kanee no, woyɛɛ vaccines de ma mmofra nkoa nanso, w’afise ɛyɛ bi ama mpayinfoɔ nso.[25]
  • Vaccine ahorow a wotumi ka bo mu.[25]
  • W’afi ase ɛyɛ vaccine ama yareɛ ɛyɛ koankro.
  • Wo gu so ɛyɛ vaccine a etumi yɛ n’adwuma te sɛ nnipa dua no ahobanbo foɔ[25]
  • Wo gu ɛyɛ vaccine a ebɛtumi abɔ nnipa ho ban fi nnipa bɔne a wo yɛ aduro bɔne ma nnipa.[25]
  • Wo gu so ɛdane dane vaccine anim sɛ nea ɛbetumi ako atia yareɛ mmoawa bebree.[27]

ReferencesEdit

  1. § United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). A CDC framework for preventing infectious diseases. Archived 2017-08-29 at the Wayback MachineAccessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines are our most effective and cost-saving tools for disease prevention, preventing untold suffering and saving tens of thousands of lives and billions of dollars in healthcare costs each year." § American Medical Association (2000). Vaccines and infectious diseases: putting risk into perspective. Archived 2015-02-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines are the most effective public health tool ever created." § Public Health Agency of Canada. Vaccine-preventable diseases. Archived 2015-03-13 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines still provide the most effective, longest-lasting method of preventing infectious diseases in all age groups." § United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda for Category B and C Priority Pathogens. Archived2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines are the most effective method of protecting the public against infectious diseases."
  2. Fiore AE, Bridges CB, Cox NJ (2009). Seasonal influenza vaccines. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 333. pp. 43–82. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92165-3_3. ISBN 978-3-540-92164-6. PMID 19768400.
  3. Chang Y, Brewer NT, Rinas AC, Schmitt K, Smith JS (July 2009). "Evaluating the impact of human papillomavirus vaccines". Vaccine. 27 (32): 4355–62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.008. PMID 19515467.
  4. Liesegang TJ (August 2009). "Varicella zoster virus vaccines: effective, but concerns linger". Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 44 (4): 379–84. doi:10.3129/i09-126. PMID 19606157.
  5. Orenstein WA, Bernier RH, Dondero TJ, Hinman AR, Marks JS, Bart KJ, Sirotkin B (1985). "Field evaluation of vaccine efficacy". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 63 (6): 1055–68. PMC 2536484. PMID 3879673.
  6. Jan 11, Hub staff report / Published; 2017 (2017-01-11). "The science is clear: Vaccines are safe, effective, and do not cause autism". The Hub. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  7. Ellenberg SS, Chen RT (1997). "The complicated task of monitoring vaccine safety". Public Health Reports. 112 (1): 10–20, discussion 21. PMC 1381831. PMID 9018282.
  8. "Vaccine Safety: The Facts". HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  9. Grammatikos AP, Mantadakis E, Falagas ME (June 2009). "Meta-analyses on pediatric infections and vaccines". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 23 (2): 431–57. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2009.01.008. PMID 19393917.
  10. Schlegel M, Osterwalder JJ, Galeazzi RL, Vernazza PL (August 1999). "Comparative efficacy of three mumps vaccines during disease outbreak in Eastern Switzerland: cohort study". BMJ. 319 (7206): 352. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7206.352. PMC 32261. PMID 10435956.
  11. Préziosi MP, Halloran ME (September 2003). "Effects of pertussis vaccination on disease: vaccine efficacy in reducing clinical severity". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 37 (6): 772–9. doi:10.1086/377270. PMID 12955637.
  12. Miller, E.; Beverley, P. C. L.; Salisbury, D. M. (2002-07-01). "Vaccine programmes and policies". British Medical Bulletin. 62 (1): 201–211. doi:10.1093/bmb/62.1.201. ISSN 0007-1420. PMID 12176861.
  13. "WHO | Smallpox". WHO. World Health Organization. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  14. "19 July 2017 Vaccines promoted as key to stamping out drug-resistant microbes"Immunization can stop resistant infections before they get started, say scientists from industry and academia."". Archived from the original on July 22, 2017.
  15. Sullivan P (2005-04-13). "Maurice R. Hilleman dies; created vaccines". Wash. Post. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Maglione MA, Das L, Raaen L, Smith A, Chari R, Newberry S, Shanman R, Perry T, Goetz MB, Gidengil C (August 2014). "Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review". Pediatrics. 134 (2): 325–37. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1079. PMID 25086160.
  17. "Possible Side-effects from Vaccines". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018-07-12. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  18. "Seasonal Flu Shot – Seasonal Influenza (Flu)". CDC. 2018-10-02. Archived from the original on 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2017-09-17
  19. "Vaccine Types". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2012-04-03. Archived from the original on 2015-09-05. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  20. "Types of Vaccines". Archived from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved October 19,2017.
  21. "Different Types of Vaccines | History of Vaccines". www.historyofvaccines.org. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  22. "Different Types of Vaccines | History of Vaccines". www.historyofvaccines.org. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  23. "Monovalent" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  24. Polyvalent vaccine at Dorlands Medical Dictionary Archived March 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Plotkin SA (April 2005). "Vaccines: past, present and future". Nature Medicine. 11 (4 Suppl): S5-11. doi:10.1038/nm1209. PMC 7095920. PMID 15812490.
  26. Carlson B (2008). "Adults now drive growth of vaccine market". Gen. Eng. Biotechnol. News. 28 (11). pp. 22–3. Archived from the original on 2014-01-10.
  27. Staff (28 March 2013). "Safer vaccine created without virus". The Japan Times. Agence France-Presse – Jiji Press. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-28.25. ^ Needham, Joseph. (2000). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 6, Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.154