Akanfoɔ

Akanfoɔ yɛ abusuakuo kɛse bi a wɔka Tano kasahorow no. Mpenpii no, wobehunu Akanfuo wɔ oman Gaana anaafoɔ. Abakɔsem kyerɛ a, Akanfoɔ a wɔnkyi firi Gaana man mu no, wɔn mu pii nso wɔ Ivory Coast man no mu. Akan kasa no, (ɛyɛ Twi/Fante/Akyem/Akuapem) yɛ kasahorow bi a ɛwɔ Potou-Tano abusuakuo ketewa mu na wɔn nyinaa firi Niger-Kongo abusua kɛse no mu.[1]

Akan abusua nkyekyɛmu.

  • Asante, Akuapem, Akwamu, Kwahu, ɛne Akyem (ne nyinaa kabom ɛyɛ Twi kasa), Agona, Wassa, Fante (Mfantse: Anomabo, Abura, Gomoa) ɛne Bono.
  • Bia abusuakuo nkyekyɛmu no yɛ: Anyinfoɔ, Baoulefoɔ, Anufofoɔ, Sefwifoɔ, Nzemafoɔ, Ahantafoɔ ɛne Gywira-Pepsafoɔ. Yɛhwɛ Akanfoɔ abusakuo yi nyinaa a, wɔn amamere edi nsɛ. Ade baako a ɛda nso wɔ Akan abusuakuo no nyinaa mu ne sɛ, wɔn nyinaa edi ɛna de.

ɛnam sɛ abrofo bɛdii Gaanafoɔ so na wɔde wɔn yɛɛ nkoa nti no, ɛne yi, yɛbehunu Akan abusuakuo yi bi wɔ Amerika abrokyireman no mu. Abakɔsem kyere a, nkoa yɛde wɔn firi Gold Coast kɔ abrokyireman mu no, emu nkyekyɛmu bɛyɛ oha mubupɛn du (10%) na ɛye akanfoɔ. Ade baako a ɛma Akanfoɔ de mu na ɛma yɛfrɛ wɔn sikafoɔ ene sɛ, Akanfoɔ wɔ sikakɔkɔɔ (gold) bebree. ɛnam ntɔkwa pii a esii Asantefoɔ ne fantefoɔ ntam nti no, ɛmaa abrofo no akwanya ma wɔ kyekye Akanfoɔ beberee de wɔn yɛɛ nkoa. Koromantee asrafoɔ ene Akanfoɔ a wabɛyɛ nkoaa no de pem so yiye paa esan sɛ na akanfoɔ no pɛ wɔn fahodeɛ. Akanfoɔ yɛ abusuakuo bi a na wɔn ani ɛdin yiye paa enti sɛ enɛ yi, wokɔ Amerika man no mu, na wohunu Maroons abusuakuo no a, wobehunu sɛ ampa wɔn ase firi akanman mu.

AbakɔsemEdit

ɛfiri 15th century de kosi 19th century no, ɛdwuma a na Akanfoɔ yɛ no sɛ, wotu fɛm agudie na wɔsan so de dwa kɛse paa wɔn oman no mu. Na efiri 17th century hɔ kɔ no dierr, na akanfoɔ abɛyɛ abusakuo a wɔwɔ tumi kɛse paa wɔ Abibiman nyinaa mu.[2][3][4]

Owura Peter Bakewell kyerɛ a, baeɛ a na akanfoɔ di wɔn sikakɔkɔɔ ho adwuma no gyina Komoe ne esuo Frao ntam. Baeɛ akɛseɛ mmiɛnsa a na wɔde sikakɔkɔɔ ho adwuma no yɛ Akanfoɔ, Bambukfoɔ ɛne Bure sikakɔkɔɔ baeɛ.[5]

 
cast brass yi mo na wɔde susu sikafuturo. Wɔhyɛ ase wɔ 17th century no mu. Nea ɛwɔ mfonii yi mu firi 19th century.

Sikakɔkɔɔ a na ɛwɔ Gold Coast man no mu na ɛdi abrofo ɛdwadifoɔ baa oman no mu. Abrofo a wɔdii kan bae no yɛ Portuguesefoɔ, eno akyi no na Dutɔhfoɔ ene Britishfoɔ bae esan sikakɔkɔɔ a na ebu wɔn Akanman no. ɛsan tumi a na akanfoɔ wɔ no nti, wɔni nkuro a na wɔbɛn wɔn no dii ako na wɔde wɔn so nkunim a na wa tɔn wɔn ama abrofo no (Portuguese) sɛ nkoa. Na abrofo no ɛsan sikakɔkɔɔ nti no, wɔde atuo ka saa nkoa yi ho san de ma Akanfoɔ yi. Na Akanfoɔ yi hiaa nkoa no de wɔn adɔ kwaeɛ a na etwa Asante kuro no ahyea.[6] [7] Akanfoɔ no hyɛase tɔn nkoa maa abrofo no na saa nkoa yi na abrofo no di wɔn kɔɔ wɔn kurom a ebɛdene nea yefrɛ no "trans-atlantic slave trade".[8] Wɔ afe 2006, Gaana man de gyaatoa maa nipa bi a ɛnam gaanafoɔ naa bi so wɔde wɔn asefoɔ yɛɛ nkoa kɔ abrokyireman mu.[9]

Akanfoɔ ɛnkaka Asantefoɔ ɛne abrofo no adii ako na mpɛn pii no Akanfoɔ no dii abrofo no so nkunim de kyere wɔn tumi. Saa ako yi bi yɛ Anglo- Asante ɛne ɔko a na ɛfa sika dwa Kofi (golden stool) no ho.[10][11][12]

Wɔ afe 1900s, na Gaanaman hyɛ Britain man no ase, na saa mmere no mu no, na Ivory Coast nso hyɛ France kuro no ase. Wɔ Oforisuo bosome ne da a ɛtɔ so nsia no (6 March), mmere a Gaanaman no nyaa wɔn fahodeɛ firi abrofo no nsa, Omanpanyin Kwame Nkrumah de British Togoland, Atifi Mantam, Atifi-apueɛ Mantam ene Atifi-atɔeɛ Mantam a ɛwɔ Gold Coast bomu ma no bɛyɛ enɛ Gaanaman. Ivory coast nya wɔn fahode, ɔsanaa bosome ne da ɛtɔ so nson. (7th August, 1960).[13]

Akan abusuakuo nkyekyɛmu ene wɔn ahyensodeɛEdit

Akan abusuakuo no nkyekyɛmu no ne: Asante (abusuakuo kɛse paa). Abinghi, Abbe, Abidɛi, Aboure, Adwuku, Ahafo, Ahanta, Akuapem, Akwamu, Akyem, Alladian, Anyi, Aowin, Assin, Attie, Baoule, Abron, ɔhokosi, Denkyira, Ehotile, Fante (abusuakuo kɛse a ɛtɔ so mmienu), Kwahu, Nzema, Sefwi, Teɔhiman, Twifu ene Wassa Gywira Pepesa.[14][15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Languages of the Akan area: papers in Western Kwa linguistics and on the linguistic geography of the area of ancient. Isaac K. Chinebuah, H. Max J. Trutenau, Linguistic Circle of Accra, Basler Afrika Bibliographien, 1976, pp. 168.
  2. "Pre-colonial history of Ghana". www.ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 5 December 2019
  3. Africa Gallery". Penn Museum. Retrieved 13 November 2011
  4. The African heritage, Volume 3 Zimbabwe Pub. House, 1999 – History – 180 pages
  5. Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 0841904316.
  6. Asante (Ashanti) History Much of the modern nation of Ghana". modernghana.com. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  7. "History Slave Trade". www.ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 5 December 2019
  8. Henry Louis Gates Jr. (22 April 2010). "Ending the Slavery Blame-Game". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  9. Ghana apologizes to slaves' descendants". modernghana.com. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  10. "Africa Gallery". Penn Museum. Retrieved 13 November 2011
  11. The African heritage, Volume 3 Zimbabwe Pub. House, 1999 – History – 180 pages
  12. Non-western theories of development: regional norms versus global trends, Harcourt Brace College Pub., 1999, 179 pp
  13. "United Nations member States – General Information". Un.org. Retrieved 13 November
  14. "Akan 42.1%" of a population of 22.0 million. "Akan 45.3%" of a population of 24.6 million
  15. Online Twi Dictionary – The Akan People". twi.bb. Retrieved 13 November 2011
  • Akan weights and the Gold Trade, Longman, 1980. 393 pp